In the United States, May is graduation season, and with that season comes an influx of both young and seasoned professionals entering and/or re-entering the workforce through full-time positions and short-term consultancies. May also marks the beginning of summer, where hundreds of students head “into the field” to complete research or internships in international settings. For those in international development, I have just one recommendation before you make the transition: Read this book.
How to Work in Someone Else’s Country by Ruth Stark (reviewed here by Jennifer Lentfer at How Matters) provides practical advice to mitigate against some of international development’s greatest failures as propagated by poorly prepared (and poorly behaved!) international workers. Think you know all there is to know about “getting development right” and working in partnership with local communities? Think again! Even the seasoned aid worker will pull out some hidden gems to act on, all while nodding in agreement at some of the cringe worthy anecdotes of consultants gone wrong. Especially important for evaluators and M&E specialists, as most of our work tends to be shorter-term and—let’s face it—is particularly susceptible to negative perceptions at the community or local level.
Some key takeaways from my favorite chapters:
- Relationship is everything…and everyone is related (the author struck gold with this first chapter title!) Time constraints can make the process of developing relationships take second stage, but early investment here doesn’t just pay off in the long run: it’s the right thing to do. And everyone that you encounter matters, especially when you are a guest. Besides, you never know who is related to whom. And don’t gossip about local colleagues to other local colleagues. It’s not just bad form; loose lips sink ships!
- Figure out your job and who you’re working for. The official job description or ToR is only one piece of the puzzle (and sometimes the most puzzling part!) Take time to figure out your antecedents (the who, what, when, where, why) and what it means for your work. Be especially on the lookout for political history that will guide you in what to do and what not to do. Because you’ll have many stakeholders with competing demands, it’s key to find out who the most important client is and prioritize their priorities. But most importantly, never forget the client who is not at the table to begin with.
- What to do if you get there and nobody wants you. It’s not just about taking up scarce time, space, and resources. The truth of the matter is that your presence might be a perceived and/or real threat on the ground. Understand and even embrace that reality. Meeting resistance with resistance (or, worse, imposition!) never ends well. Prepare upfront by finding out the background context about how your job came to being, but also be prepared to just shut up and listen!
- How to make them glad that you are there. Let who you are, not your credentials, define you. This can be especially hard for recent graduates. My favorite piece of advice from the whole book: Don’t give the answer until you know the question. This advice makes a great mantra for an international development professional. I would also add that your answer, when given, is never THE answer. The quickest way to lose support is by pushing your own agenda, rather than understanding and supporting someone else’s.
- Working with your local counterparts. The most important relationship of all. Sustainability, as a buzzword, has lost all meaning. But it’s all about ensuring that work can continue over the long-term, and this means building up and investing in the careers and professional development of local counterparts. All too often international consultants are too busy “building up” their own careers to recognize this tragic flaw. Ironically, an inability to do this could certainly lead to your own demise or, at the very least, to a steep decline in your reputation as someone others want to work with. Local counterparts should always, always, always participate in planning and decision-making, accompany (and direct) visits with key leaders and officials, take leadership in presentation design and delivery, receive recognition in reports and publications, etc. There is never such a thing as giving too much credit, unless it’s to yourself!
- Working with governments. Stop criticizing and start collaborating, respect official channels and processes, and don’t argue with senior government officials. Give respect where respect is due. As the author reminds us, “never forget that you are a guest of the host country and work there only at the government’s pleasure.” I’d like to personally recommend this chapter to Madonna (she’s not exactly friends with the government in Malawi—and they’ve got good reason to be irritated).
- Making a difference. Never stop asking yourself if your presence is making a difference for better or for worse. It’s not just about the project goals and metrics. These are meant to serve people. And people respond best to other people—caring and adaptive humans with soft skills, not unresponsive robots armed with pre-programmed tools and commands.
And, since the illustrative anecdotes about “bad behavior in the field” were one of my favorite parts of the book, I’m asking readers to contribute their own examples of “international consultants/employees gone wrong” in the comments section. There’s nothing better than learning (or unlearning) by example!
Calling all new and emerging evaluators—this post is for you! Graduate school can change the way you look at the world, but is that change for better or for worse? The answer, of course, is that it depends. But some skills typically learned in graduate school can actually hinder the ability to properly conduct evaluations.
In the beginning, learning to write literature reviews and design research studies is challenging because it requires one to exercise very careful logic to reach conclusions. Each thought must be justified by research-based evidence, each term must be painstakingly defined, each theoretical framework must be eloquently outlined, and each system or process must be elaborately illustrated. Much time is spent honing not only critical thinking skills, but also the ability to use (and show!) logic. Linking A to B, completing Step 1 before Step 2, proving X leads to Y—the brain becomes accustomed to thinking in a linear manner. Causation, causation, causation! After hours of reading and writing, of rereading and rewriting, it is no surprise that these habits can be hard to break. But we desperately need to unlearn some of those habits we paid so dearly to obtain.
Let me explain. I don’t have the data to prove it, but I wager that a quick survey of graduate students in academic disciplines—research-based rather than practitioner-focused programs—would reveal that more time is spent working alone than in groups. Solitary work is quite conducive to linear thought, at least in the academic sense (keeping focused on the work at hand is another story!) In such circumstances, one has the luxury of designing elaborate models that control for any and every conceivable variable that could affect the ability of the research to yield statistically significant results. And this type of research is incredibly effective for the purposes it intends to serve. In fact, many organizations engage in research, and these skills are critical to pursuing that type of work. But too many students latch onto the idea of evaluation as a career path and, fresh from their studies, attempt to use the research paradigm they’ve recently internalized in order to answer complex questions in a messy world that requires a different approach. As a recent graduate student, I know how hard these habits can be to break and how much practice it takes to effectively determine when to use research versus evaluation. This post aims to help you figure it out faster!
So what exactly does evaluation do differently than research? John LaVelle created a great visual to show just that:
If one of the first things you are learning as a new evaluator is how to design a logical framework or logic model, be sure you review these resources (and more!) very carefully. I use logic models regularly and find them useful in many ways, but they can be ineffective and downright dangerous paired with an “objective” research lens. Start unlearning those less-than-helpful-for-evaluation research habits from the start, and you’ll become a stronger and more seasoned evaluator.
What other habits learned in graduate school need to be unbroken or adapted upon entering the messy world of “work’”? Share your tips!